The States Parties to the present Convention,

Recalling that peoples of all nations from ancient times  have  recognized  the  status  of  diplomatic agents,

Having in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United  Nations  concerning  the sovereign equality of States, the maintenance of international peace  and  security,  and  the  promotion  of friendly relations among nations,

Believing that  an  international  convention on  diplomatic intercourse,  privileges and  immunities would contribute to the development of friendly relations among nations, irrespective of their differing constitutional and social systems,

Realizing that the purpose of such privileges  and  immunities  is  not  to  benefit  individuals  but  to ensure the efficient performance of the functions of diplomatic missions as representing States,

Affirming that the rules of customary international law should  continue  to  govern  questions  not expressly regulated by the provisions of the present Convention,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

For the purpose of the present Convention, the  following  expressions  shall  have  the  meanings hereunder assigned to them:

(a) The “head of the mission” is the person  charged  by  the  sending  State  with  the  duty  of acting  in that capacity;

(b) The “members of the mission” are the head of the mission  and  the  members of  the  staff  of  the mission;

(c) The “members of the staff of the mission” are the members of the diplomatic staff, of the administrative and technical staff and of the service staff of the mission;

(d) The “members of the diplomatic staff” are the members of the staff of the mission having diplomatic rank;

(e) A “diplomatic agent” is the head of the mission or a member of  the  diplomatic  staff  of  the mission;

(f) The “members of the  administrative and technical staff” are  the members of  the staff of  the mission employed in the administrative and technical service of the mission;

(g) The “members of the service staff” are the members  of  the  staff  of  the  mission  in  the  domestic service of the mission;

(h) A “private servant” is  a  person  who  is  in  the  domestic  service  of  a  member  of  the  mission  and who is not an employee of the sending State;

(i) The  “premises  of  the  mission”  are  the  buildings  or  parts  of  buildings  and  the  land  ancillary thereto, irrespective  of  ownership,  used  for  the  purposes  of  the  mission  including  the  residence  of  the head of the mission.

Article 2

The establishment of diplomatic relations  between States,  and  of  permanent  diplomatic missions, takes place by mutual consent.

Article 3

1. The functions of a diplomatic  mission consist, inter alia, in:

(a) Representing the sending State  in the receiving State;

(b) Protecting in the receiving State  the  interests  of the  sending  State  and of  its nationals,  within  the limits permitted by international law;

(c) Negotiating  with the Government  of the receiving State;

(d) Ascertaining by all lawful means conditions and developments in the receiving   State,   and reporting thereon to the Government of the sending State;

(e) Promoting  friendly  relations  between  the  sending  State  and  the  receiving  State,  and  developing their economic, cultural and scientific relations.

2. Nothing in the present Convention shall be construed as preventing the performance of consular functions by a diplomatic mission.

Article 4

1. The sending State must make certain that the agrément of the receiving  State has been given  for the person it proposes to accredit as head of the mission to that State.

2. The receiving State is not obliged to give reasons to the sending State for a refusal of agrément.

Article 5

1. The sending State may, after it  has  given  due  notification  to  the  receiving  States  concerned, accredit a head of  mission  or  assign  any  member  of  the  diplomatic  staff,  as  the  case  may  be,  to  more than one State, unless there is express objection by any of the receiving States.

2. If the sending State accredits a head of mission to one or more other States  it may  establish  a diplomatic mission  headed  by a chargé  d’affaires  ad  interim  in each  State  where  the head  of mission  has not his permanent seat.

3. A head of mission or  any member of the diplomatic staff of the mission may act as representative of the sending State to any international organization.

Article 6

Two or more States may accredit the same person  as  head  of  mission  to  another  State,  unless objection is offered by the receiving State.

Article 7

Subject to the provisions of articles 5,  8,  9  and  11,  the  sending  State  may  freely  appoint  the members of the staff of the mission. In the case of military,  naval or air attachés,  the receiving  State  may require their names to be submitted beforehand, for its approval.

Article 8

1. Members of the diplomatic staff of the mission should in principle  be  of  the  nationality  of  the sending State.

2. Members of the  diplomatic  staff  of  the  mission  may  not  be  appointed  from  among  persons having the nationality of  the  receiving  State,  except  with  the  consent  of  that  State  which  may  be withdrawn at any time.

3. The receiving State may  reserve  the same  right  with  regard  to nationals  of a third  State  who  are not also nationals of the sending State.

Article 9

1. The receiving State  may  at  any  time  and  without  having  to  explain  its  decision,  notify  the sending State that the  head  of  the  mission  or  any  member  of  the  diplomatic  staff  of  the  mission  is persona non grata or that  any  other  member  of  the  staff  of  the  mission  is  not  acceptable.  In  any  such case, the sending  State shall,  as appropriate,  either  recall the  person  concerned  or terminate  his  functions with the  mission.  A person  may be  declared  non grata  or not acceptable  before  arriving  in the  territory  of the receiving State.

2. If the sending State refuses or fails within a reasonable period to carry out its obligations under paragraph  1  of  this  article,  the  receiving  State  may  refuse  to  recognize  the  person  concerned  as  a member of the mission.

Article 10

1. The  Ministry  for  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  receiving  State,  or  such  other  ministry  as  may  be agreed, shall be notified of:

(a) The appointment of members of the mission, their arrival and  their final departure or the termination of their functions with the mission;

(b) The arrival and final  departure  of  a  person  belonging  to  the  family  of  a  member  of  the  mission and, where appropriate, the fact that a  person  becomes  or  ceases  to  be  a  member  of  the  family  of  a member of the mission;

(c) The arrival and final departure of private servants  in  the  employ of persons  referred to  in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph  and,  where  appropriate,  the  fact  that  they  are  leaving  the  employ  of such persons;

(d) The engagement  and  discharge of  persons  resident  in  the  receiving  State as  members  of  the mission or private servants entitled to privileges and immunities.

2. Where possible, prior  notification  of arrival  and final departure shall also be given.

Article 11

1. In the absence  of  specific  agreement  as  to  the  size  of  the  mission,  the  receiving  State  may require that the size of a  mission  be  kept  within  limits  considered  by  it  to  be  reasonable  and  normal, having regard to circumstances and conditions in the receiving State  and  to  the  needs  of  the  particular mission.

2. The  receiving  State  may  equally,  within  similar  bounds and  on  a  non-discriminatory   basis, refuse to accept officials of a particular category.

Article 12

The sending State  may  not,  without  the  prior  express  consent  of  the  receiving  State,  establish offices forming part of  the mission in localities other than those in which the mission itself is established.

Article 13

1. The head of the mission is  considered  as  having  taken  up  his  functions  in  the  receiving  State either when he has presented his credentials or when he has notified his arrival and  a  true  copy  of  his credentials has been presented to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the receiving State, or such other ministry as may be agreed, in accordance  with  the practice  prevailing  in  the receiving  State  which  shall be applied in a uniform manner.

2. The order of presentation of credentials or of a true copy thereof will be determined by the date and time of the arrival of the head of the mission.

Article 14

1. Heads of mission are divided into three classes, namely:

(a) That of ambassadors or nuncios accredited to Heads of State, and other heads of mission of equivalent rank;

(b) That of envoys, ministers  and internuncios  accredited  to Heads  of State;

(c) That of chargés d’affaires  accredited  to Ministers  for Foreign  Affairs.

2. Except as concerns precedence and etiquette, there shall be no differentiation between heads of mission by reason of their class.

Article 15

The class to which the heads of their missions are to be assigned shall be agreed between States.

Article 16

1. Heads of mission shall take  precedence in  their  respective classes  in  the  order  of  the  date  and time of taking up their functions in accordance with article 13.

2. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any  change  of  class  shall  not affect his precedence.

3. This article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See.

Article 17

The precedence of the members of the diplomatic staff of the mission shall be notified  by the head of the mission to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs or such other ministry as may be agreed.

Article 18

The procedure to be observed in each State for the reception of heads of mission shall be uniform in respect of each class.

Article 19

1. If the post of head of  the  mission  is  vacant,  or  if  the  head  of  the  mission  is  unable  to  perform his functions  a  chargé  d’affaires  ad  interim  shall  act provisionally  as  head  of  the  mission.  The  name  of the chargé d’affaires ad  interim  shall  be  notified,  either  by  the  head  of  the  mission  or,  in  case  he  is unable to do so, by the  Ministry  for  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  sending  State  to  the  Ministry  for  Foreign Affairs of the receiving State or such other ministry as may be agreed.

2. In cases where  no  member  of  the  diplomatic  staff  of  the  mission  is  present  in  the  receiving State, a member of the administrative and technical staff may, with the consent of the receiving State, be designated by the sending State to be in charge of the current administrative affairs of the mission.

Article 20

The mission and its  head  shall  have  the right  to  use  the flag  and  emblem  of  the  sending  State  on the premises of the mission, including the residence of the  head  of  the  mission,  and  on  his  means  of transport.

Article 21

1. The receiving State shall either  facilitate  the  acquisition  on  its  territory,  in  accordance  with  its laws, by the sending State of premises necessary for its mission  or assist  the latter in  obtaining accommodation in some other way.

2. It shall also, where necessary, assist missions  in  obtaining  suitable  accommodation for  their members.

Article 22

1. The premises of the mission shall be  inviolable.  The agents  of the receiving  State  may  not enter them, except with the consent of the head of the mission.

2. The receiving  State  is  under  a  special  duty  to  take  all  appropriate  steps  to  protect  the  premises of the mission  against  any  intrusion  or  damage  and  to  prevent  any  disturbance of  the  peace  of  the mission or impairment of its dignity.

3. The premises of the mission, their  furnishings  and  other  property  thereon  and  the  means  of transport of the mission shall be immune from search, requisition, attachment or execution.

Article 23

1. The sending State and the head of the mission shall be exempt  from  all  national,  regional  or municipal dues and taxes in  respect  of the  premises  of the  mission,  whether  owned  or  leased, other  than such as represent payment for specific services rendered.

2. The exemption from taxation referred to in this article  shall  not  apply  to  such  dues  and  taxes payable under the law of the receiving State  by persons contracting with the sending State or the head of the mission.

Article 24

The archives and documents  of the mission  shall be inviolable  at any time  and wherever they  may be.

Article 25

The receiving State shall accord full facilities for the performance  of the functions of the mission.

Article 26

Subject  to  its  laws  and  regulations  concerning   zones  entry  into  which  is  prohibited  or  regulated for  reasons  of  national  security,  the  receiving  State  shall  ensure  to  all  members  of  the  mission  freedom of movement and travel in its territory.

Article 27

1. The receiving  State  shall  permit  and  protect  free  communication  on  the  part  of  the  mission  for all  official  purposes.  In  communicating with   the  Government  and  the  other  missions  and  consulates  of the sending State, wherever situated, the mission may employ all   appropriate   means,   including diplomatic couriers and messages in code or cipher. However, the mission may install and use a wireless transmitter only with the consent of the receiving State.

2. The  official correspondence  of  the  mission  shall  be  inviolable.  Official   correspondence   means all correspondence relating to the mission and its functions.

3. The diplomatic bag shall not be opened or detained.

4. The packages constituting the  diplomatic  bag  must  bear  visible  external  marks  of their  character and may contain only diplomatic documents or articles intended for official use.

5. The  diplomatic  courier,  who  shall  be  provided  with  an  official  document  indicating  his  status and the number of  packages  constituting  the  diplomatic  bag,  shall  be  protected  by  the  receiving  State  in the performance of  his  functions.  He  shall  enjoy  person  inviolability  and  shall  not  be  liable  to  any  form of arrest or detention.

6. The sending State or the mission may designate diplomatic couriers ad hoc. In  such  cases  the provisions of paragraph 5  of  this  article  shall  also  apply,  except  that  the  immunities  therein  mentioned shall cease to apply when such a courier has delivered to the consignee the diplomatic bag in his charge.

7. A diplomatic bag may  be  entrusted  to  the  captain  of  a  commercial  aircraft  scheduled  to  land  at an  authorized  port  of  entry.  He  shall  be  provided  with  an  official  document  indicating  the  number  of packages constituting  the  bag but he shall  not be considered  to  be a diplomatic  courier.  The mission  may send one of its  members  to  take  possession  of the diplomatic  bag  directly  and  freely  from  the  captain  of the aircraft.

Article 28

The fees and charges levied by  the mission  in  the course  of its  official  duties  shall  be  exempt  from all dues and taxes.

Article 29

The person of  a  diplomatic  agent  shall  be inviolable.  He  shall  not  be  liable  to  any  form  of  arrest or detention. The receiving State shall treat him  with  due  respect and  shall  take  all appropriate  steps  to prevent any attack on his person, freedom or dignity.

Article 30

1. The private residence  of  a  diplomatic  agent  shall enjoy  the  same  inviolability  and  protection  as the premises of the mission.

2. His papers, correspondence and,  except  as  provided  in  paragraph  3  of  article  31,  his  property, shall likewise enjoy inviolability.

Article 31

1. A  diplomatic  agent  shall  enjoy  immunity  from  the  criminal  jurisdiction  of  the  receiving  State. He shall also enjoy immunity from its civil and administrative jurisdiction, except in the case of:

(a) A real action relating to private immovable property situated in  the territory  of  the  receiving  State, unless he holds it on behalf of the sending State for the purposes of the mission;

(b) An action relating to succession in which the diplomatic  agent  is  involved  as  executor, administrator, heir or legatee as a private person and not on behalf of the sending State;

(c) An action relating to any  professional  or  commercial  activity  exercised  by  the  diplomatic  agent  in the receiving State outside his official functions.

2. A diplomatic  agent is not obliged to give evidence as a witness.

3. No measures of execution may be taken  in  respect  of  a  diplomatic  agent  except  in  the  cases coming under  subparagraphs (a),  (b)  and  (c)  of  paragraph 1  of  this  article,  and  provided  that the measures concerned can be taken without infringing  the inviolability of his person or of his residence.

4. The immunity  of a diplomatic  agent  from  the jurisdiction  of the receiving  State  does  not exempt him from the jurisdiction of the sending State.

Article 32

1. The immunity from jurisdiction of  diplomatic  agents  and  of  persons  enjoying  immunity  under article 37 may be waived by the sending State.

2. Waiver must always be express.

3. The initiation of proceedings by a diplomatic agent or by a  person  enjoying  immunity  from jurisdiction under  article  37  shall  preclude  him  from  invoking  immunity  from  jurisdiction  in  respect  of any counterclaim directly connected with the principal claim.

4. Waiver of  immunity  from  jurisdiction  in  respect  of  civil  or  administrative  proceedings  shall  not be held to imply waiver of immunity  in  respect  of the execution  of  the judgement,  for  which  a separate waiver shall be necessary.

Article 33

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this article, a diplomatic agent  shall  with  respect  to services rendered for  the  sending  State  be  exempt  from  social  security  provisions  which  may  be  in  force in the receiving State.

2. The exemption  provided  for  in  paragraph  1  of  this  article  shall  also  apply  to  private  servants who are in the sole employ of a diplomatic agent, on condition:

(a) That they are not nationals of or permanently  resident in the receiving State; and

(b) That they are covered  by  the  social  security  provisions  which  may be  in  force  in the  sending  State or a third State.

3. A diplomatic agent  who employs  persons  to whom  the exemption  provided  for  in paragraph  2 of this article does not  apply  shall  observe  the  obligations  which  the  social  security  provisions of  the receiving State impose upon employers.

4. The exemption provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall not preclude voluntary participation in the social  security  system  of  the  receiving  State  provided  that  such  participation  is permitted by that State.

5. The  provisions  of  this  article  shall  not  affect  bilateral  or  multilateral  agreements  concerning social  security  concluded  previously  and  shall  not  prevent  the  conclusion  of  such  agreements  in  the future.

Article 34

A diplomatic agent shall be exempt from all dues and taxes, personal or real, national, regional or municipal, except:

(a) Indirect taxes of a kind which are normally incorporated  in the price of goods or services;

(b) Dues and taxes on private immovable property situated in the  territory  of  the  receiving  State, unless he holds it on behalf of the sending State for the purposes of the mission;

(c) Estate, succession or inheritance duties levied by the receiving State, subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of article 39;

(d) Dues and taxes on private income having its source in the receiving State and capital taxes on investments made in commercial undertakings in the receiving State;

(e) Charges  levied for specific  services  rendered;

(f) Registration, court or record fees, mortgage dues and  stamp duty, with respect to  immovable property, subject to the provisions of article 23.

Article 35

The receiving State  shall  exempt  diplomatic  agents  from  all  personal  services,  from  all  public service of any kind whatsoever, and from military obligations such as those connected   with requisitioning, military contributions and billeting.

Article 36

1. The receiving State shall,  in accordance  with  such laws  and  regulations  as it may  adopt,  permit entry of and grant exemption from all customs duties, taxes,  and  related  charges  other  than  charges  for storage, cartage and similar services, on:

(a) Articles for the official use of the mission;

(b) Articles for the personal use of a diplomatic agent or members of his family forming part of his household, including articles intended for his establishment.

2. The personal baggage of a diplomatic agent  shall  be  exempt  from  inspection,  unless  there  are serious grounds for presuming that it  contains  articles  not  covered  by  the  exemptions mentioned  in paragraph 1  of this  article,  or articles  the  import  or export  of  which  is prohibited  by  the law  or controlled by the quarantine regulations of  the  receiving  State.  Such  inspection  shall  be  conducted  only  in  the presence of the diplomatic agent or of his authorized representative.

Article 37

1. The members of the family  of a diplomatic  agent  forming  part  of  his household  shall,  if they  are not nationals of the receiving State, enjoy the privileges and immunities specified in articles 29 to 36.

2. Members  of  the  administrative and  technical  staff  of  the  mission,  together  with  members   of their families forming part of their respective households, shall, if they are not nationals of or permanently resident  in the receiving  State,  enjoy  the  privileges  and  immunities  specified  in  articles  29 to 35,  except  that  the  immunity  from  civil  and administrative  jurisdiction  of  the  receiving  State  specified in paragraph 1 of  article  31 shall  not  extend  to  acts  performed  outside  the  course  of  their  duties.  They shall also enjoy the  privileges  specified  in  article  36,  paragraph  1,  in  respect of  articles  imported  at  the time of first installation.

3. Members  of the  service  staff  of  the mission  who  are not nationals  of  or permanently  resident  in the receiving State shall enjoy immunity in  respect  of  acts  performed  in  the  course  of  their  duties, exemption from dues and taxes on the emoluments they receive by reason of their employment  and  the exemption contained in article 33.

4. Private servants of members of the mission shall,  if  they  are  not  nationals  of  or  permanently resident in the receiving State,  be  exempt  from  dues  and  taxes  on the  emoluments  they  receive  by  reason of their employment. In other respects,  they  may  enjoy  privileges  and  immunities  only  to  the  extent admitted by the receiving State. However, the  receiving  State  must  exercise  its  jurisdiction  over  those persons in such a manner as not to interfere unduly with the performance  of the functions of the mission.

Article 38

1. Except insofar as additional privileges and immunities may be granted by the receiving State, a diplomatic agent who  is  a  national  of  or  permanently  resident  in  that  State  shall  enjoy  only  immunity from jurisdiction, and inviolability,  in respect of official acts performed in the exercise of his functions.

2. Other members of the staff of  the  mission and  private servants who  are nationals of  or permanently resident in the  receiving  State  shall  enjoy  privileges  and  immunities  only  to  the  extent admitted by the receiving State. However, the  receiving  State  must  exercise  its  jurisdiction  over  those persons in such a manner as not to interfere unduly with the performance  of the functions of the mission.

Article 39

1. Every person entitled  to  privileges  and immunities  shall  enjoy  them  from  the  moment  he  enters the territory of the  receiving  State  on  proceeding  to  take  up  his  post  or,  if  already  in  its  territory,  from the moment  when  his  appointment  is  notified  to  the  Ministry  for  Foreign  Affairs  or  such  other  ministry as may be agreed.

2. When the functions of a person enjoying privileges and immunities have come to  an end,  such privileges and  immunities  shall  normally  cease  at  the  moment  when  he  leaves  the  country,  or  on  expiry of a reasonable  period in which to do so, but shall subsist until that time,  even in case of armed conflict. However,  with  respect  to  acts  performed  by  such  a  person  in  the  exercise  of his  functions  as a  member of the mission, immunity shall continue to subsist.

3. In case of the death of a  member  of  the  mission,  the  members  of  his  family  shall  continue  to enjoy the privileges and immunities to  which  they  are entitled  until  the  expiry  of a reasonable  period  in which to leave the country.

4. In the event of  the death  of a member  of  the mission  not a national  of  or permanently  resident  in the receiving State or a member  of  his  family  forming  part  of  his  household,  the  receiving  State  shall permit the withdrawal of  the  movable  property  of  the  deceased,  with  the  exception  of  any  property acquired in the  country  the  export  of  which  was  prohibited  at  the  time  of  his  death.  Estate,  succession and inheritance duties  shall  not  be  levied  on  movable  property  the  presence  of  which  in  the  receiving State was due solely to the presence there of the deceased as a member of the mission or as a member of the family of a member of the mission.

Article 40

1. If a diplomatic  agent  passes  through  or  is in  the territory  of  a  third  State,  which  has granted  him a passport visa if such visa was necessary,  while proceeding  to take  up or to return  to his post, or when returning  to his own  country,  the third  State  shall  accord him  inviolability  and  such other  immunities  as may be required to ensure his transit or  return.  The  same  shall apply  in  the  case of  any members  of his family enjoying privileges or immunities who  are  accompanying the diplomatic agent,  or  travelling separately to join him or to return to their country.

2. In circumstances similar to those specified in  paragraph  1  of  this  article,  third  States  shall  not hinder the passage of members of the administrative and technical or service staff  of  a  mission,  and  of members of their families, through their territories.

3. Third States shall accord to official correspondence and   other   official   communications   in transit, including messages in code or cipher, the same  freedom  and  protection  as  is  accorded  by  the receiving  State.  They  shall accord  to diplomatic  couriers,  who  have been  granted  a passport  visa if  such visa was necessary, and  diplomatic  bags  in transit,  the same  inviolability  and  protection  as the  receiving State is bound to accord.

4. The obligations of third States under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of  this article  shall also  apply  to the persons  mentioned respectively   in  those   paragraphs,   and  to  official   communications   and  diplomatic bags, whose presence in the territory of the third State is due to force majeure.

Article 41

1. Without prejudice to their privileges and immunities, it is the duty of all persons enjoying such privileges and immunities  to  respect  the  laws  and  regulations  of  the  receiving  State.  They  also  have  a duty not to interfere in the internal affairs of that State.

2. All official  business  with  the receiving  State  entrusted  to  the mission  by  the  sending  State  shall be conducted with  or  through  the  Ministry  for  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  receiving  State  or  such  other ministry as may be agreed.

3. The premises of the mission must  not  be  used  in any  manner  incompatible  with  the  functions  of the mission as  laid  down  in  the  present  Convention  or by  other  rules  of general  international  law  or  by any special agreements in force between the sending and the receiving State.

Article 42

A diplomatic agent shall not in the receiving State practise for personal profit any professional or commercial activity.

Article 43

The function of a diplomatic agent comes to an end, inter alia:

(a) On notification by the sending State to the  receiving  State  that  the  function  of  the  diplomatic agent has come to an end;

(b) On notification by the receiving State to the sending State that,  in  accordance  with  paragraph  2  of article 9, it refuses to recognize the diplomatic agent as a member of the mission.

Article 44

The  receiving  State  must,  even  in  case  of  armed  conflict,  grant   facilities  in  order  to  enable persons enjoying  privileges  and  immunities,  other  than  nationals  of the  receiving  State,  and  members  of the families of such persons  irrespective  of  their  nationality,  to  leave  at the earliest  possible  moment.  It must, in  particular, in case  of need, place  at  their disposal the  necessary means of  transport for themselves and their property.

Article 45

If diplomatic relations are broken off between two  States,  or  if  a  mission  is  permanently  or temporarily recalled:

(a) The receiving State must, even in case of armed conflict, respect and protect the  premises of the mission, together with its property and archives;

(b) The sending State may entrust the custody of the premises of the mission,  together  with  its property and archives, to a third State acceptable to the receiving State;

(c) The sending State may entrust the protection of its  interests  and  those  of its  nationals  to  a  third State acceptable to the receiving State.

Article 46

A sending State may with the  prior  consent  of  a receiving  State,  and at the  request  of  a  third  State not represented  in  the  receiving  State,  undertake  the  temporary  protection  of  the  interests  of  the  third State and of its nationals.

Article 47

1. In the application of the provisions of the present Convention, the  receiving  State  shall  not discriminate as between States.

2. However, discrimination  shall not be regarded  as taking  place:

(a) Where the receiving State applies any of  the provisions of  the  present  Convention restrictively because of a restrictive application of that provision to its mission in the sending State;

(b) Where by custom or agreement States  extend to  each  other more favourable treatment  than is required by the provisions of the present Convention.

Article 48

The present  Convention  shall  be  open  for  signature  by  all  States  Members  of  the  United  Nations or of any of  the  specialized  agencies  Parties  to  the  Statute  of  the  International  Court  of  Justice,  and  by any other State invited by the General  Assembly  of  the  United  Nations  to  become  a  Party  to  the Convention, as follows: until 31 October 1961 at the Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Austria and subsequently, until 31 March 1962, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.

Article 49

The present Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of   ratification   shall   be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 50

The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State belonging to any of the four categories mentioned in article 48. The instruments of  accession  shall  be  deposited  with  the  Secretary- General of the United Nations.

Article 51

1. The present  Convention  shall  enter  into  force  on  the  thirtieth  day  following  the  date  of  deposit of the twenty-second instrument of ratification  or  accession  with  the  Secretary-General of  the  United Nations.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit  of  the  twenty-second instrument of ratification or accession,  the  Convention  shall  enter  into  force  on  the  thirtieth  day  after deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 52

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States belonging to any  of the  four categories mentioned in article 48:

(a) Of signatures to the present Convention and of  the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession, in accordance with articles 48, 49 and 50;

(b) Of the date on which the present Convention will enter into force, in accordance with article 51.

Article 53

The original  of  the  present  Convention, of  which  the  Chinese,  English,  French,  Russian  and Spanish texts  are equally  authentic,  shall be  deposited  with  the  Secretary-General  of  the United  Nations, who shall send certified copies  thereof  to all States belonging  to any of  the four  categories  mentioned  in article 48.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized  thereto  by  their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention.

DONE at Vienna this eighteenth day of April one thousand nine hundred and sixty-one.

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